Standards and Rules
First Security Initiatives:
Carrier Initiative Program - CIP
The Carrier Initiative Program (CIP) was created in 1984 by the U.S. Customs Service as a cooperative effort between air transporters, naval transporters, land and railway transporters to face the drug trafficking problem and prevent drugs from being smuggled into the United States by commercial transporters. By signing the CIP Agreement with the U.S. Customs Service, transportation companies commit to strengthen their security measures in domestic and foreign terminals as well as in their own transporting facilities. In addition, the companies agree to cooperate closely with the U.S. Customs Service in identifying and reporting smuggling attempts and other illicit activities. The U.S. Customs Service performs domestic and foreign security audits, post seizure analysis, and provides training to the companies in order to identify weaknesses in their internal security systems and suggest improvements to strengthen their security measures.
Land Border Carrier Initiative Program
The Land Border Carrier Initiative Program (LBCIP) was developed in the spring of 1995 as a means to face the narcotic smuggling problem in the south-east border of the United States. The main objective is to keep the land transportation companies operating in the border from being used for the smuggling of illicit substances into the United States. This is achieved through the implementation of effective security measures in the transportation terminals as well as in the transportation routes and by encouraging transporters to recognize and report any suspicious activities to the U.S. Customs Service.
Since July 1, 1996, all importers who wish to expedite their shipping must contract the services of a certified LBCIP transport entity.
Supercarrier Initiative Program - SCIP
Like the Land Border Carrier Initiative Program (LBCIP), the Super Carrier Initiative Program (SCIP) also derives from the Carrier Initiative Program (CIP). This program is focused on large transporters, especially those considered to have the highest risk of narcotic contamination. Among such transporters are airlines and ocean transporters.
Current Security Measures:
Americas Counter Smuggling Initiative
American Counter Smuggling Initiative (ACSI) is a high priority program established in 1998 by the U.S. Customs Service. It is based on the success obtained by the CIP and BASC, and it seeks to strengthen and expand anti-narcotic and anti-terrorist security programs in association with industries and governments. ACSI is composed by a team of Customs inspectors and agents who assist companies in the development of security programs and initiatives in order to keep legitimate commerce from being used for narcotic smuggling activities or terrorist actions. The countries that ACSI focus are the same countries that have a BASC Chapter. The ACSI teams travel to each country approximately four times a year and provide trainings and on site audits to the associated companies.
ISPS – OMI Code
The International Maritime Organization, which makes part of the United Nations, approved on December 13 nine amendments to its International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) treaty of 1974. The conference agreed that by July 2004, ships over 500 metric tons performing international travels, passenger ships, mobile petroleum and gas platforms located off the coast and port facilities must comply with the new requirements. The code seeks to improve the security of all ships, people on board (passengers and crew), terminals located off the coast and port facilities.
For the designated port facilities, the code establishes a three level security alert system that represents normal, medium and high level risk situations. In case of a high risk level situation, there is the implementation of appropriate security measures for the ship and for the port. For example, for ships and ports, a risk level of one involves the guarding of restricted areas, controlled access to the ship, supervision of cargo handling and provisions of the ship, and open communications between ports and ships that allow immediate communication.
In order to establish the appropriate level of security in the ports, each signatory government must perform security evaluations that identify the critical goods as well as the areas, equipment and facilities in which an attack might cause a significant loss of lives or damage to the environment or the economy. The International BASC Standards can serve as a guideline for the implementation of security measures and for the evaluation to identify weaknesses of the port in terms of physical security, structural integrity, protection systems, policy procedures, communication systems, transportation infrastructure, public services and other possible targets.
Container Security Initiative
This program promoted by the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection – CBP, was established after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 to prevent the use of legitimate containers for acts of terrorism. It was initially focused on the 20 largest maritime ports in the world that have a high level of commerce with the United States. To date 10 mega-ports in the world have attained CSI classification. Those countries that wish to implement the CSI Standard in their ports must meet a series of minimum requirements. One of its advantages is that it permits more efficient shipping because the containers are subject to less scrutiny in the U.S. destination port.
International Ship and Port Facility
Security - ISPS
Following the attacks of September of 2001 the International Maritime Organization (WMO) decided to develop new security measures on ships and ports with the objective of implementing security standards with the cooperation of port personnel.
This process led on December 13, 2002, to the adoption of a stricter version of the Safety of Life at Sea Convention (SOLAS) with the introduction of a new set of security guidelines. This is referred to as the International Ship and Port Facility Security – ISPS. This standard that has been in place since July 1, 2004, is to be applied to all signers of the SOLAS Convention.
ISPS is a group of standards and practices covering everything from control of access to installations, preventing the access of weapons to ships and ports, action plans in the event of indications of threats, evacuation plans, etc., through the assignment of security agents to every port and shipping line and to every vessel. Under this international standard security becomes primarily the responsibility of governments, who in turn should delegate responsibility to qualified organizations or port authorities.
Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism - C-TPAT
Law Against Bioterrorism
On June 12, 2002 the United States enacted Public Law 107-188, The Public Health Preparedness and Response Act, based on significant amendments to the statutes of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). This law is a cornerstone for the prevention and combating of potential terrorist attacks, and seeks in general to apply standards designed to control the flow of foods and biological agents.
Created in November 2001, this program is a partnership between the United States Customs Service and businesses to develop security systems in the supply chain – importers, transportation, brokers, warehouses, operators and producers – and for border security. Companies participating in the C-TPAT sign an agreement to perform an internal appraisal of the security of their supply chain using the standards of the program. These include security procedures, physical safety, security personnel, training and instruction, access controls, transportation security, etc.
WCO Framework of Standards
During the Meeting of its Policy Commission held on December 7-9, 2004, in Amman, Jordan, the World Customs Organization (WCO) accepted the first draft of the Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate World Trade. This framework establishes principles and standards for a group of measures that should be adopted by all the members. It is designed to provide uniformity and predictability in trade; and security and less difficulty in the transport of products across borders.
The Framework of the WCO was developed based on 4 principles to which the Customs Services commit themselves: Harmonization of prior electronic shipping manifest information to permit risk analysis; Utilization of a common risk analysis approach; Utilization of non-intrusive detection equipment for checks; and Definition of benefits that customs provide to the private sector for meeting the standards.
WBO participated in the consultative meetings to discuss the “Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade.” The framework of 17 standards was approved during the Sessions 105-106 of the World Customs Organization meeting held in Brussels on June 23-25, 2005.